Piles and pile foundation in use since prehistoric times. The Neolithic inhabitants of Switzerland drove wooden poles in the soft bottoms of shallow lakes or lagoons 12000 years ago and erected their homes on them.
Now a day, pile foundations serve to make the place was able to the built-in an area where the soil condition is unfavourable for an open foundation.
For end-bearing pile, when a file passes through a poor stratum and takes it is the small distance into a stratum of good bearing capacity.
For friction pile, when it is not possible to achieve a high bearing stratum, up to a reasonable depth, then frictional resistance capacity of the pile surface is used to achieve the bearing capacity.
Most of the time people use the combination of end bearing as well as skin friction.
For tension piles, it is used to resist moment in tall structure and upward forces.
Piles are the most commonly adopted deep foundations to support massive superstructures like multistoreyed buildings, bridges, towers, dams, etc., when the founding soil is weak and result bearing capacity and settlement problems.